1978 — Present


Reflex operant conditioning for neural rehabilitation has been investigated for over four decades, and involved efforts from multiple countries, various laboratories, and teams of researchers. For more information about the progression from when researchers realized the possibility of ROC and adapting it to rehabilitation, Click Here.


2020

Thompson, AK, Sinkjaer T. (2020) Can operant conditioning of MEG evoked responses help to target carticospinal plasticity for improving motor function in people with multiple sclerosis? Front Neurol. doi:10.3389/fneur.2020.00552

Dutt-Mazumder A, Segal RL, Thompson AK. Effect of ankle angles on the soleus H-reflex excitability during standing. Motor Control. 2020 Jan 2:1-15. doi: 10.1123/mc.2018-0118. PMID: 31899887.

2019

Mrachacz-Kersting N, Kersting UG, de Brito Silva P, Makihara Y, Arendt-Nielsen L, Sinkjaer T, Thompson AK. (2019). Acquisition of a simple motor skill: task-dependent adaptation and long-term changes in the human soleus stretch reflex. J Neurophysiol. 122(1):4350446. doi:10.11.52/jn.00211.2019.

Thompson, A. K., Fiorenza, G., Smyth, L., Favale, B., Brangaccio, J., & Sniffen, J. (2019). Operant conditioning of the motor-evoked potential and locomotion in people with and without chronic incomplete spinal cord injury. Journal of Neurophysiology, 121(3), 853-866. doi:10.1152/jn.00557.2018

Thompson, A. K., & Wolpaw, J. R. (2019). H‐reflex conditioning during locomotion in people with spinal cord injury. The Journal of Physiology. doi:10.1113/jp278173

2018

Thompson, A. K., Cote, R. H., Sniffen, J. M., & Brangaccio, J. A. (2018). Operant conditioning of the tibialis anterior motor evoked potential in people with and without chronic incomplete spinal cord injury. Journal of Neurophysiology, 120(6), 2745-2760. doi:10.1152/jn.00362.2018

Thompson, A. K., Favale, B. M., Velez, J., & Falivena, P. (2018). Operant Up-Conditioning of the Tibialis Anterior Motor-Evoked Potential in Multiple Sclerosis: Feasibility Case Studies. Neural Plasticity, 2018, 1-10. doi:10.1155/2018/4725393

2016

Thompson, A. K., Cote, R. H., & Thompson, C. R. (2016). Operant Conditioning of the Tibialis Anterior Motor Evoked Potential to Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. Converging Clinical and Engineering Research on Neurorehabilitation II Biosystems & Biorobotics, 29-32. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-46669-9_6

Thompson, A. K., Pudlik, S. D., & Thompson, C. R. (2016). Effects of H-Reflex Operant Conditioning in Humans. Converging Clinical and Engineering Research on Neurorehabilitation II Biosystems & Biorobotics, 53-57. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-46669-9_10

2015

Thompson, A. K., & Wolpaw, J. R. (2015). Targeted neuroplasticity for rehabilitation. Sensorimotor Rehabilitation – At the Crossroads of Basic and Clinical Sciences Progress in Brain Research, 157-172. doi:10.1016/bs.pbr.2015.02.002

2014

Makihara, Y., Segal, R. L., Wolpaw, J. R., & Thompson, A. K. (2014). Operant conditioning of the soleus H-reflex does not induce long-term changes in the gastrocnemius H-reflexes and does not disturb normal locomotion in humans. Journal of Neurophysiology, 112(6), 1439-1446. doi:10.1152/jn.00225.2014

Thompson, A. K., & Wolpaw, J. R. (2014). Operant conditioning of spinal reflexes: From basic science to clinical therapy. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 8. doi:10.3389/fnint.2014.00025

Thompson, A. K., & Wolpaw, J. R. (2014). Restoring Walking after Spinal Cord Injury. The Neuroscientist, 21(2), 203-215. doi:10.1177/1073858414527541

Thompson, A. K., & Wolpaw, J. R. (2014). The Simplest Motor Skill. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 42(2), 82-90. doi:10.1249/jes.0000000000000010

2013

Manella, K. J., Roach, K. E., & Field-Fote, E. C. (2013). Operant conditioning to increase ankle control or decrease reflex excitability improves reflex modulation and walking function in chronic spinal cord injury. Journal of Neurophysiology, 109(11), 2666-2679. doi:10.1152/jn.01039.2011

Thompson AK, Pomerantz F, Wolpaw JR. Operant conditioning of a spinal reflex can improve locomotion after spinal cord injury in humansJ Neurosci. 33:2365-2375, 2013. PMCID: 3579496.

2012

Thompson, A. K., Chen, X. Y., & Wolpaw, J. R. (2012). Soleus H-reflex operant conditioning changes the H-reflex recruitment curve. Muscle & Nerve, 47(4), 539-544. doi:10.1002/mus.23620

2011

Chen, Y., Chen, L., Wang, Y., Wolpaw, J. R., & Chen, X. Y. (2011). Operant Conditioning of Rat Soleus H-Reflex Oppositely Affects Another H-Reflex and Changes Locomotor Kinematics. Journal of Neuroscience, 31(31), 11370-11375. doi:10.1523/jneurosci.1526-11.2011

Makihara, Y., Segal, R. L., Wolpaw, J. R., & Thompson, A. K. (2011). H-reflex modulation in the human medial and lateral gastrocnemii during standing and walking. Muscle & Nerve, 45(1), 116-125. doi:10.1002/mus.22265

Thompson, A. K., Lapallo, B., Duffield, M., Abel, B. M., & Pomerantz, F. (2011). Repetitive common peroneal nerve stimulation increases ankle dorsiflexor motor evoked potentials in incomplete spinal cord lesions. Experimental Brain Research, 210(1), 143-152. doi:10.1007/s00221-011-2607-1

2010

Chen, X. Y., Chen, Y., Wang, Y., Thompson, A., Carp, J. S., Segal, R. L., & Wolpaw, J. R. (2010). Reflex conditioning: A new strategy for improving motor function after spinal cord injury. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1198. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05565.x

2009

Thompson, A. K., Chen, X. Y., & Wolpaw, J. R. (2009). Acquisition of a Simple Motor Skill: Task-Dependent Adaptation Plus Long-Term Change in the Human Soleus H-Reflex. Journal of Neuroscience, 29(18), 5784-5792. doi:10.1523/jneurosci.4326-08.2009

2006

Carp, J. S., Tennissen, A. M., Chen, X. Y., & Wolpaw, J. R. (2006). H-Reflex Operant Conditioning in Mice. Journal of Neurophysiology, 96(4), 1718-1727. doi:10.1152/jn.00470.2006

Chen, Y., Chen, X. Y., Jakeman, L. B., Chen, L., Stokes, B. T., & Wolpaw, J. R. (2006). Operant Conditioning of H-Reflex Can Correct a Locomotor Abnormality after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats. Journal of Neuroscience, 26(48), 12537-12543. doi:10.1523/jneurosci.2198-06.2006

Chen, X. Y., Chen, L., Chen, Y., & Wolpaw, J. R. (2006). Operant Conditioning of Reciprocal Inhibition in Rat Soleus Muscle. Journal of Neurophysiology, 96(4), 2144-2150. doi:10.1152/jn.00253.2006

Thompson, A. K., Stein, R. B., Chen, X. Y., & Wolpaw, J. R. (2006). Modulation in spinal circuits and corticospinal connections following nerve stimulation and operant conditioning. 2006 International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. doi:10.1109/iembs.2006.259544

2002

Chen, X. Y., Carp, J. S., Chen, L., & Wolpaw, J. R. (2002). Corticospinal tract transection prevents operantly conditioned H-reflex increase in rats. Experimental Brain Research, 144(1), 88-94. doi:10.1007/s00221-002-1026-8

2001

Carp, J., Chen, X., Sheikh, H., & Wolpaw, J. (2001). Motor unit properties after operant conditioning of rat H-reflex. Experimental Brain Research, 140(3), 382-386. doi:10.1007/s002210100830

Carp, J. S., Chen, X., Sheikh, H., & Wolpaw, J. R. (2001). Operant conditioning of rat H-reflex affects motoneuron axonal conduction velocity. Experimental Brain Research, 136(2), 269-273. doi:10.1007/s002210000608

Wolpaw, J. R., & Chen, X. Y. (2001). Operant conditioning of rat H-reflex: Effects on mean latency and duration. Experimental Brain Research, 136(2), 274-279. doi:10.1007/s002210000609

1999

Chen, X. Y., Wolpaw, J. R., Jakeman, L. B., & Stokes, B. T. (1999). Operant Conditioning of H-Reflex Increase in Spinal Cord–Injured Rats. Journal of Neurotrauma, 16(2), 175-186. doi:10.1089/neu.1999.16.175

1997

Segal, R. L. (1997). Plasticity in the Central Nervous System: Operant Conditioning of the Spinal Stretch Reflex. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 3(4), 76-87. doi:10.1080/10749357.1997.11754130

1996

Chen, X., & Wolpaw, J. (1996). Reversal of H-reflex operant conditioning in the rat. Experimental Brain Research, 112(1). doi:10.1007/bf00227178

Chen, X. Y., Wolpaw, J. R., Jakeman, L. B., & Stokes, B. T. (1996). Operant Conditioning of H-Reflex in Spinal Cord-Injured Rats. Journal of Neurotrauma, 13(12), 755-766. doi:10.1089/neu.1996.13.755

Feng-Chen, K. C., & Wolpaw, J. R. (1996). Operant conditioning of H-reflex changes synaptic terminals on primate motoneurons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 93(17), 9206-9211. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.17.9206

1995

Chen, X. Y., & Wolpaw, J. R. (1995). Operant conditioning of H-reflex in freely moving rats. Journal of Neurophysiology, 73(1), 411-415. doi:10.1152/jn.1995.73.1.411

1994

Segal, R. L., & Wolf, S. L. (1994). Operant Conditioning of Spinal Stretch Reflexes in Patients with Spinal Cord Injuries. Experimental Neurology, 130(2), 202-213. doi:10.1006/exnr.1994.1199

Wolpaw, J. R., Maniccia, D. M., & Elia, T. (1994). Operant conditioning of primate H-reflex: Phases of development. Neuroscience Letters, 170(2), 203-207. doi:10.1016/0304-3940(94)90319-0

1993

Wolpaw, J., Herchenroder, P., & Carp, J. (1993). Operant conditioning of the primate H-reflex: Factors affecting the magnitude of change. Experimental Brain Research, 97(1). doi:10.1007/bf00228815

1990

Wolpaw, J. R., & Herchenroder, P. A. (1990). Operant conditioning of H-reflex in freely moving monkeys. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 31(2), 145-152. doi:10.1016/0165-0270(90)90159-d

1989

Evatt, M., Wolf, S., & Segal, R. (1989). Modification of human spinal stretch reflexes: Preliminary studies. Neuroscience Letters, 105(3), 350-355. doi:10.1016/0304-3940(89)90646-0

Wolpaw, J. R., & Lee, C. L. (1989). Memory traces in primate spinal cord produced by operant conditioning of H-reflex. Journal of Neurophysiology, 61(3), 563-572. doi:10.1152/jn.1989.61.3.563

Wolpaw, J., Lee, C., & Calaitges, J. (1989). Operant conditioning of primate triceps surae H-reflex produces reflex asymmetry. Experimental Brain Research, 75(1). doi:10.1007/bf00248527

1988

Wolpaw, J. R., & Dowman, R. (1988). Operant conditioning of primate spinal reflexes: Effect on cortical SEPs. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 69(4), 398-401. doi:10.1016/0013-4694(88)90012-0

1987

Wolpaw, J. R. (1987). Operant conditioning of primate spinal reflexes: The H-reflex. Journal of Neurophysiology, 57(2), 443-459. doi:10.1152/jn.1987.57.2.443